Medical Definition of Kratom Written by Our Doctors

Kratom: a botanical (plant) preparation that has been described by marketers to offer relief from pain, depression, and anxiety as well as to treat addiction to opioid drugs. Kratom is a plant found in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. It has also been used as a drug of abuse, an alternative to opioid drugs because it can produce similar effects, with similar risks of addiction and death.

In November 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory about the health risks of kratom, citing reports of at least 36 known deaths associated with the use of kratom-containing products. An updated communication by the FDA in February 2018 confirmed the evidence suggesting that kratom has properties of an opioid drug and strengthened the warnings about its use. There also have been reports of kratom being laced with other opioids like hydrocodone. The use of kratom is has been linked to serious complications such as seizures, liver damage and withdrawal symptoms. Kratom use has been linked to 44 deaths between 2011 and 2017.

There are currently no FDA-approved uses of kratom. In the 2018 update, the FDA states, “Kratom should not be used to treat medical conditions, nor should it be used as an alternative to prescription opioids. There is no evidence to indicate that kratom is safe or effective for any medical use.”

Kratom is regulated as a controlled substance in 16 countries and is also banned in several US states.




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FDA. “Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. on FDA advisory about deadly risks associated with kratom.” Nov 17, 2017.
<https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm584970.htm>

FDA. “Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on the agency’s scientific evidence on the presence of opioid compounds in kratom, underscoring its potential for abuse.”
<https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm595622.htm>

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    Chromosomal Abnormalities: Trisomy 21, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13 – Embryology | Lecturio


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        Almost 21 Million Worldwide Now Have Access to HIV Meds

        News Picture: Almost 21 Million Worldwide Now Have Access to HIV Meds

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        TUESDAY, Nov. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The number of people with HIV who take life-saving antiretroviral medications has increased by tens of millions worldwide in recent decades, a United Nations report says.

        The number rose from 685,000 in 2000 to 20.9 million as of June 2017, according to UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS.

        “Many people do not remember that in 2000 there were only 90 people in South Africa on treatment,” Michel Sidibe, executive director of UNAIDS, said in an agency news release.

        “Today, South Africa has the biggest life-saving treatment program in the world, with more than 4 million people on treatment,” Sidibe said. “This is the kind of acceleration we need to encourage, sustain and replicate.”

        The new report also said that because more people with HIV are receiving treatment, more of them are alive and well.

        Research also shows that people with HIV who adhere to antiretroviral treatment are up to 97 percent less likely to transmit the AIDS-causing virus to others. And as treatment has become more available to pregnant women, there has been a sharp drop in the number of children born with HIV.

        However, a number of challenges remain, the report said. One is to provide antiretroviral treatment to over 17 million people with HIV who currently aren’t receiving it, including 919,000 children.

        Another challenge is to make HIV prevention a public health priority again, particularly in nations with rising HIV infection rates. In eastern Europe and central Asia, for example, the rate of new infections has risen 60 percent since 2010 and AIDS-related deaths have increased 27 percent, according to the new report.

        — Robert Preidt

        MedicalNews
        Copyright © 2017 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

        SOURCE: UNAIDS, news release, Nov. 20, 2017

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          Discrimination Impacts Extra Than Simply the Victims

          News Picture: Discrimination Affects More Than Just the Victims

          TUESDAY, Dec. 26, 2017 (HealthDay Information) — Discrimination takes a toll not solely on a sufferer’s well being however on the well-being of their romantic companions, too, a brand new research finds.

          “We discovered that when a person experiences discrimination, they report worse well being and melancholy,” stated research chief William Chopik, an assistant professor of psychology at Michigan State College. “Nevertheless, that is not the complete story — this stress spills over and impacts the well being of their companion as effectively.”

          The research concerned practically 2,000 , 50 to 94 years previous, who relayed their experiences with discrimination. Additionally they offered particulars about their well being, signs of melancholy and the extent of intimacy or pressure of their relationship.

          The researchers discovered that discrimination of any sort — racial, gender or age — had a detrimental impact on folks’s well being.

          “What issues is that they felt that they had been unfairly handled,” Chopik stated in a college information launch. “That is what had the most important impression on the individual’s well being.”

          Nevertheless, the discrimination additionally affected the sufferer’s partner or romantic companion, the research discovered. The researchers stated that is as a result of concerned in a relationship usually share the burden of those incidents and experiences.

          “We discovered that numerous the dangerous results of discrimination on well being happen as a result of it is so damaging to ,” Chopik stated. “When one companion experiences discrimination, they convey that stress residence with them, and it strains the connection. So this stress not solely negatively impacts their very own well being, however their companion’s as effectively.”

          The findings had been revealed lately within the journal Social Psychological and Character Science.

          — Mary Elizabeth Dallas

          MedicalNews
          Copyright © 2017 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

          SOURCE: Michigan State College, information launch, Dec. 7, 2017

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            How to Remove a Tick | WebMD

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            If you spot a tick on your body, removing it is pretty easy — just make sure you have the right tool.

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