Exercising in the Great Outdoors

News Picture: Exercising in the Great OutdoorsBy Len Canter
HealthDay Reporter

Latest Exercise & Fitness News

MONDAY, May 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Outdoor exercise can be invigorating and a great morale booster. But always take a few simple steps to stay safe, no matter the season.

For starters, dress for the weather. Whether it’s cold or hot, that usually involves layering so you can start off warm and peel off layers as you heat up.

In warm weather, check out your local heat index. Listen for any ozone warning that it’s unsafe to be outdoors before you make the decision to exercise outside.

When first working out in the heat, start with short sessions, then gradually increase length and intensity as your body adapts. As the temperature heats up over summer months, adapt exercise accordingly.

Here are some hot weather essentials:

  • Wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothing to stay cooler — dark colors absorb heat.
  • Wear a light-colored wide-brimmed hat or cap to protect your head and face from the sun.
  • Carry extra water with you since dehydration can happen sooner than in cooler temperatures.

Know the signs of heat illnesses:

In cold weather, pay attention to the wind chill index — extremes can make exercising outdoors unsafe even if you dress warmly, with any exposed skin vulnerable to frostbite. When it’s cold but tolerable, pay extra attention to protecting your extremities — your head, hands and feet.

Cold weather essentials:

  • Wear a hat with earflaps to protect your head and a scarf to protect your neck.
  • Wear a thin pair of liners under heavier gloves or mittens. Take off the outer pair if your hands get sweaty.
  • Choose exercise shoes that are slightly larger than usual and wear thick thermal socks or double up on regular socks.

It’s possible to get sunburned in winter as well as in summer, especially during snow sports at high altitudes. So year-round, wear broad-spectrum sunscreen and a lip balm with an SPF 15 or higher. Protect your eyes from glare bouncing off sand, snow or ice with glasses or goggles.

Stay well hydrated regardless of the temperature. Drink water before, during and after your workout, even if you don’t feel thirsty. You can become dehydrated from sweating and other factors even in cold weather, yet may not notice it as quickly.

If you have a medical condition, check with your doctor before you head outdoors, especially in cold weather. You may need to take special precautions.

Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


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    Vaginal Yeast Infection Symptoms, Home Remedies & Causes

    Alt TextA woman waits in a doctor's medical exam room.

    Vaginal yeast infection definition and facts

    Yeast infection

    Yeast Infection Symptoms

    The symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection are similar among affected women,
    however, they are not all specific.

    Some women may experience symptoms of yeast infection such as:

    • Pain during sexual intercourse
    • Pain or burning with urination
    • Vaginal discharge (whitish-gray, thick, and a consistency similar to
      cottage cheese)

    90% of yeast infections are caused by <i>Candida albicans</i>, which is shown on an agar plate.

    What is a vaginal yeast infection?

    A vaginal yeast infection is an infection caused by yeast (a type of fungus). Vaginal yeast infection is sometimes referred to as yeast vaginitis, Candidal vaginitis, or Candidal vulvovaginitis. The scientific name for the yeast that causes vaginitis is Candida. Over 90% of vaginal yeast infections are caused by the species known as Candida albicans. Other Candida species make up the remainder of yeast infections.

    Candida species can be present in healthy women in the vagina without causing any symptoms. In fact, it is estimated that 20% to 50% of women have Candida already present in the vagina. For an infection to occur, the normal balance of yeast and bacteria is disturbed, allowing overgrowth of the yeast. While yeast can be spread by sexual contact, vaginal yeast infection is not considered to be a sexually-transmitted disease because it can also occur in women who are not sexually active, due to the fact that yeast can be present in the vagina of healthy women.

    Vaginal yeast infections are very common, affecting up to 75% of women at some point in life.

    A picture shows <i>Candida albicans</i>, which is responsible for over 90% of vaginal yeast infections.

    What are the signs and symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection?

    Symptoms can include:

    The discharge has been described as having a cottage-cheese-like consistency.

    Other symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection include:

    • An intense itching of the vaginal or genital area
    • Irritation and burning
    • Pain during sexual intercourse
    • Pain or burning during urination
    • Redness, irritation, or soreness of the vagina or vulva in women; swelling of the vagina

    A doctor holds a variety of medications.

    What causes a vaginal yeast infection?

    Vaginal yeast infections occur when new yeast is introduced into the vaginal area, or when there is an increase in the quantity of yeast already present in the vagina relative to the quantity of normal bacteria. For example, when the normal, protective bacteria are eradicated by antibiotics (taken to treat a urinary tract, respiratory, or other types of infection) or by immunosuppressive drugs, the yeast can multiply, invade tissues, and cause irritation of the lining of the vagina (vaginitis).

    Vaginal yeast infections can also occur as a result of injury to the inner vagina, such as after chemotherapy. Also, women with suppressed immune systems (for example, those taking cortisone-related medications such as prednisone) develop vaginal yeast infections more frequently than women with normal immunity.

    Other conditions that may predispose women to developing vaginal yeast infections include

    The use of douches or perfumed vaginal hygiene sprays may also increase a woman’s risk of developing a vaginal yeast infection.

    A vaginal yeast infection is not considered to be a sexually transmitted disease (STD), since Candida may be present in the normal vagina, and the condition does occur in celibate women.

    However, it is possible for men to develop symptoms of skin irritation of the penis from a yeast infection after sexual intercourse with an infected partner, although this is not always the case.

    An assortment of women's cotton underwear which can help reduce the chance of getting a yeast infection.

    What may increase my risk of getting a vaginal yeast infection?

    Women who have conditions that result in decreased immune function are more likely than others to develop yeast infections. These include women with cancer or receiving cancer chemotherapy, those with diabetes, and women taking steroid medications.

    Pregnant women and women taking oral contraceptives are also at increased risk.

    Taking antibiotics for any reason can alter the normal bacterial populations in the vagina and predispose to the overgrowth of yeast.

    Taking steps to reduce moisture in the genital area can reduce the chances of developing a yeast infection. Wearing cotton underwear or underwear with a cotton crotch, wearing loose-fitting pants, and avoiding prolonged wearing of wet workout gear or bathing suits are all measures that can help control moisture, and may help reduce the chance of getting a yeast infection.

    A doctor discusses vaginal yeast infection treatments with a patient.

    How is a vaginal yeast infection diagnosed?

    Even though the signs and symptoms of yeast infection may point to the cause, vaginal itching and discharge can be caused by other conditions including bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas infections. To most accurately make the diagnosis, a sample of the discharge is tested in the laboratory, either by culture or by direct examination under a microscope, to identify the yeast organisms and to help rule out other causes such as bacterial vaginosis or sexually-transmitted diseases.

    What home remedies can be used for the treatment of vaginal yeast infection?

    Yeast infection is treated using antifungal drugs. Both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) remedies are available that are effective in treating vaginal yeast infections. Nonprescription drugs are the best home remedy for yeast infections, and they can cure most yeast infections. However, homeopathic methods have not been adequately studied for doctors and other health care professionals to recommend them, and anti-itch medications treat only the itching symptoms, but do not treat the underlying cause (yeast infection).

    A woman shops for over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal yeast infection medication at a pharmacy.

    A pharmacist fills a vaginal yeast infection prescription.

    When are prescription medications used for the treatment of vaginal yeast infection?

    Oral prescription medications, taken in pill or tablet form, can be used to treat recurrent yeast infections or infections that do not respond to topical treatment. Fluconazole (Diflucan) is typically used as the first-choice oral antifungal medicine.

    Fluconazole also may be taken as weekly or monthly maintenance for women who have recurrent yeast infections, but it is first necessary to prove by culture that recurrent infections are occurring.

    Oral antifungal medications should not be used by pregnant women.

    Oral medications also have more side effects, including

    A worried man sits on the edge of the bed with his wife.

    A woman changes in a locker room after a shower.

    A couple having a discussion in bed.

    How can you protect yourself from contracting a yeast infection from your sexual partner?

    Condoms may help prevent transmission of a yeast infection from women to men, but they are not completely effective since there may be contact with areas of the body not covered by the condom.

    Avoiding intercourse when a woman has symptoms of a yeast infection is the best way to prevent spreading of the infection.

    Medically Reviewed on 5/4/2018



    Eckert, L. Acute Vulvovaginitis. New N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1244-1252.

    Krapf, JM, MD. ” Vulvovaginitis.: Medscape. Updated: Jan 19, 2018.

    Hetal, BG, MD. “Vaginitis.” Medscape. Updated: Nov 12, 2017.>

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      The Paleo Diet: Fad or Not So Fad?

      Is a Sty Contagious?

      Those With Diabetes Less Likely to See Dentist Despite Health Risks

      News Picture: Those With Diabetes Less Likely to See Dentist Despite Health Risks

      WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Many adults with diabetes don’t see the dentist often enough, even though they’re at increased risk for gum disease, researchers say.

      In a new study, investigators analyzed data from just over 2.5 million American adults who took part in an annual federal government health survey.

      The survey results showed that people with diabetes or prediabetes were least likely to visit the dentist. The study included about 248,000 diabetics, 30,500 people with prediabetes and over 2.2 million without diabetes.

      Study author Huabin Luo, of East Carolina University in Greenville, N.C., was concerned by the results. “Those who need dental care the most seem to be the least likely to have it,” said Luo, an assistant professor of public health.

      People with diabetes are at increased risk for gum disease, which can hamper blood-sugar control and speed the progression of diabetes, the study authors explained.

      Between 2004 and 2014, annual dental visits fell from 66 percent to 61 percent among people with diabetes; from 66 percent to just under 65 percent among those with prediabetes; and from nearly 72 percent to 66.5 percent for people without diabetes, the study found.

      According to the study’s senior author, Bei Wu, “For people living with diabetes, regular dental check-ups — paired with proactive dental and diabetes self-care — are important for maintaining good oral health.” Wu is director of Global Health and Aging Research at New York University’s Rory Meyers College of Nursing in New York City.

      “Regular dental visits provide opportunities for prevention, early detection, and treatment of periodontal [gum] disease, which can potentially help with blood-glucose control and preventing complications from diabetes,” Wu explained in an NYU news release.

      Health care workers should encourage people with diabetes to visit a dentist at least once a year, she suggested. “Increasing access to dental services is vital to achieving this goal,” she added.

      The researchers also found other differences in how often Americans see a dentist. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to see a dentist than whites. Men and single people were also less likely to make regular visits to the dentist than women and those who are married, the findings showed.

      The report was published online April 2 in the Journal of the American Dental Association.

      — Robert Preidt

      Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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        Many Grad Students Struggle With Anxiety, Depression

        News Picture: Many Grad Students Struggle With Anxiety, Depression

        FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Depression and anxiety is nearly seven times more common among graduate students than in the general population, a new study finds.

        Researchers surveyed nearly 2,300 graduate students — 90 percent who were working on their Ph.D. and 10 percent pursuing a master’s. They found that 41 percent had moderate to severe anxiety and 39 percent had moderate to severe depression.

        In the population as a whole, the rates of both conditions are about 6 percent, according to the researchers, from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

        They also found that the rate of anxiety and depression was higher among female and transgender/gender-nonconforming graduate students than among their male counterparts.

        Rates of anxiety and depression were:

        • 43 percent for anxiety and 41 percent for depression among females,
        • 55 percent and 57 percent among transgender/gender-nonconforming students,
        • 34 and 35 percent among males.

        The researchers described the rates of anxiety and depression as “strikingly high.”

        The study appears in the March issue of the journal Nature Biotechnology.

        “There is a growing cry for help from graduate students across the globe who struggle with significant mental health concerns,” the authors wrote. “Despite increased discussion of the topic, there remains a dire need to resolve our understanding of the mental health issues in the trainee population.”

        For instance, when asked if they have a good work/life balance, the majority of students with anxiety or depression said they did not.

        “Work-life balance is hard to attain in a culture where it is frowned upon to leave the laboratory before the sun goes down,” the authors wrote.

        They urged universities to establish or expand mental health and career development resources available to graduate students. Faculty training and “a change in the academic culture” also are needed, they concluded.

        — Robert Preidt

        Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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            Essure Female Sterilization Device Appears Safe: Study

            News Picture: Essure Female Sterilization Device Appears Safe: StudyBy Dennis Thompson
            HealthDay Reporter

            Latest Womens Health News

            TUESDAY, Jan. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Essure implants used in female sterilization have come under fire in recent years, with women reporting a wide array of problems to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

            A new study from France shows the implants are relatively safe and do not raise the risk of side effects or health problems, however.

            The results show that Essure should remain on the market as a viable option for some women who want to avoid pregnancy, said Dr. Eve Espey, chair of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

            “I do hope calmer minds will prevail and we don’t lose a very valuable technique that’s helped lots and lots of women,” said Espey, who wrote an editorial that accompanied the study. Both were published in the Jan. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

            Traditional female sterilization — “having your tubes tied” — involves laparoscopic surgery. Small tools are inserted through tiny incisions in the abdomen to cut or seal a woman’s fallopian tubes, preventing pregnancy immediately.

            Essure implants — small springlike coils — are inserted into the fallopian tubes through the vagina, eliminating the need for any incisions. The procedure can be performed in an office setting in less than 15 minutes.

            Once inserted, the coils promote the creation of scar tissue that eventually seals off the tubes. However, the natural process can take up to three months, and in the meantime a woman can still get pregnant through unprotected sex.

            Essure is a valuable option for women with health problems serious enough that they might die under general anesthesia, which is required for laparoscopic surgery, said Dr. Charles Ascher-Walsh, director of gynecology and urogynecology for Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.

            It’s also a good option women with prior abdominal surgery and for women with so much excess weight that laparoscopic surgery would be difficult to perform, Espey explained.

            Safety concerns related to Essure first arose in 2015 in the United States, the study authors said in background notes. Women began reporting a wide variety of side effects to the FDA, including bleeding, abdominal pain, migraine, depression, allergic reactions, autoimmune diseases and thyroid problems.

            The matter has grown so heated that Espey said she saw people protesting Essure right next to anti-abortion protesters when she attended the last annual meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

            To weigh these safety concerns, researchers, led by Dr. Kim Bouillon of the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products in Saint-Denis, analyzed data from more than 105,000 French women who received sterilization between 2010 and 2014.

            About a third of the women received the Essure implant, and the rest had traditional laparoscopic surgery.

            Women who got the Essure implant faced lower immediate risk for complications, about 0.13 percent compared against 0.78 percent for surgery — not surprising, given that the procedure requires no incisions or anesthesia.

            However, Essure patients also faced a higher risk that the sterilization wouldn’t take effect — about 4.8 percent compared with 0.69 percent for surgery.

            They also were more likely to require another gynecological procedure within a year, about 5.7 percent versus 1.7 percent.

            “What they found is what we already knew, that a larger percent of women needed a second sterilization procedure because the first one didn’t work,” Espey said.

            But the researchers found no difference in other medical complications and side effects between Essure and laparoscopic surgery.

            Espey and Ascher-Walsh doubt that the findings will end suspicion regarding Essure’s safety.

            “This will give a little bit more evidence to us when we’re trying to let a patient know it’s not as bad as it sounds, but it’s one chord in a long tune of negativity,” Ascher-Walsh said. “I honestly don’t think it’s going to change too much.”

            Espey said she’s most worried that Essure’s manufacturer, Bayer, will decide it’s not worth the trouble and pull the device from the market.

            “My concern is it won’t matter what women think or what the research says. If the product goes off the market, it’s gone,” Espey said. “Having a robust method mix is most likely to have the best impact to allow women to plan their families and reduce unplanned pregnancy.”

            In a statement, Bayer said it supports the study’s conclusions.

            “Bayer believes it is critically important that women and their health care providers are armed with factual, unbiased information regarding permanent birth control options, given there are misconceptions and blatant untruths spread when it comes to all types of birth control, but particularly hysteroscopic surgery,” the company said.

            Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

            SOURCES: Eve Espey, M.D., chair, obstetrics and gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, N.M.; Charles Ascher-Walsh, M.D., director, gynecology and urogynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City; Jan. 23/30, 2018, Journal of the American Medical Association

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              Grind Your Teeth at Night? Botox Might Help

              News Picture: Grind Your Teeth at Night? Botox Might HelpBy Steven Reinberg
              HealthDay Reporter

              WEDNESDAY, Jan. 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) — If you’re one of the millions of people who grind and clench their teeth during sleep, an injection of Botox might be the answer, a small study suggests.

              The condition, called bruxism, can lead to pain, headaches, jaw problems and damaged teeth. However, the researchers reported that shots of Botox into the chewing muscles in the cheek can block the signals that tell these muscles to contract, relieving the grinding and clenching.

              “Nighttime and daytime bruxism is a very common condition that can cause headaches, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome and dental problems that can lead to disability and adversely impact quality of life,” said the study’s senior researcher, Dr. Joseph Jankovic. He’s a professor of neurology at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.

              Although the cause of bruxism is still not well understood, Jankovic said, it’s thought to be due to abnormal signals coming from the brain that cause involuntary and forceful contractions of the jaw muscles. Those contractions result in clenching of the jaw and grinding of teeth.

              Botox injections are a treatment that’s gained favor in treating the condition, but their real value hadn’t been tested, Jankovic noted.

              “Our study is the first placebo-controlled trial of Botox that demonstrates the benefits of this treatment in patients who suffer with severe grinding of the teeth while asleep,” he said. “We showed that this treatment is not only effective, but also safe.”

              Jankovic added that he believes it should be the treatment of choice.

              Funding for the study came from Allergan Pharmaceuticals, the maker of onabotulinum toxin-A, known as Botox. Jankovic is a consultant to Allergan.

              Botox first made headlines as a treatment for facial lines and wrinkles by paralyzing the sub-surface muscles. It’s also been used to treat migraines, excessive sweating and muscle disorders, among other conditions.

              For the bruxism study, 22 people first spent a night in a sleep lab so the researchers could measure their teeth grinding and clenching symptoms. Botox can be used to treat people with severe and moderately severe cases of bruxism, Jankovic said.

              Next, 13 of the participants were given Botox injections through their cheeks into their chewing muscles. The other nine were injected with an inactive placebo. After four to eight weeks, the participants were reassessed while spending another night in the sleep lab.

              Among those given the placebo, none showed improvement in their grinding or clenching, according to the report. But six of the 13 people injected with Botox had symptoms the researchers described as “much improved” or “very much improved.”

              The participants also rated their symptoms and pain on two scales of 0 to 100, where 50 meant no change. People who’d received Botox reported fewer symptoms and less pain, with average scores of 65 on both scales. Those who’d been given the placebo reported no improvement, with average scores of 47 and 42, respectively.

              Jankovic said the Botox treatments produced no serious side effects. Two participants given the drug experienced lopsided smiles, which evened out after a couple weeks, he said.

              Limits of the study included its small size and lack of an accepted way of assessing the severity of teeth grinding, Jankovic said.

              Other treatments for teeth grinding and clenching include mouth guards, which can help prevent tooth damage but may not stop the grinding and clenching. In addition, behavioral and drug treatments have been tried, but they either have not been tested in clinical trials or have had mixed results, Jankovic said.

              The cost of Botox treatment varies, he said, but it’s covered by most health insurance.

              Though small-scale, the study showed that Botox is better than a placebo in treating teeth grinding, he said. Larger trials aren’t planned, and Allergan has not decided whether to apply for FDA approval for using Botox for bruxism, according to Jankovic.

              The study was published online Jan. 17 in the journal Neurology.

              Karen Raphael, a professor of oral and maxillofacial pathology, radiology and medicine at New York University College of Dentistry in New York City, isn’t convinced that most teeth grinding needs to be treated.

              “At best, sleep bruxism is now considered a risk factor for potential oral health problems, but not an inherent disorder,” she said.

              The central question, Raphael said, is whether bruxism should be treated when it’s not typically associated with dental problems.

              The participants were chosen because they reported facial pain and bruxism, but it’s not clear whether they suffered from bruxism or were told they had it, Raphael said. People with facial pain are often told that they have sleep bruxism, she said.

              The real benefit of Botox may be in treating TMJ disorders, she said.

              Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

              SOURCES: Joseph Jankovic, M.D., professor, neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; Karen Raphael, Ph.D., professor, oral and maxillofacial pathology, radiology and medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, New York City; Jan. 17, 2018, Neurology, online

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                Hormone Therapy May Be OK for Women With Migraines

                News Picture: Hormone Therapy May Be OK for Women With MigrainesBy Amy Norton
                HealthDay Reporter

                WEDNESDAY, Oct. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Women who suffer from migraines may be able to safely use hormone therapy to treat menopause symptoms, a new study suggests.

                The study of 85,000 U.S. women found no evidence that hormone therapy carried a particular risk of heart attack or stroke among those with a history of migraine headaches.

                That possibility has been a concern, mainly based on studies of younger women with migraines. Those studies linked hormonal birth control pills to a small risk of stroke, particularly among women whose migraines feature “aura” symptoms — most often, visual disturbances such as seeing zigzag lines or bright flashes.

                Less has been known about any risks of hormone replacement therapy, said Dr. Jelena Pavlovic, the lead researcher on the new study.

                “It appears safe for women with migraines to use hormone therapy, in terms of their cardiovascular risk,” said Pavlovic, an assistant professor of neurology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City.

                That said, she added, the general advice for women is to talk to their doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy — and to start “low and slow.”

                That’s the advice of groups such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. They recommend that women only use hormone therapy at the lowest dose and for the shortest length of time needed to ease menopause symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats.

                Doctors have been cautious about menopausal hormone therapy ever since 2002, when results were reported from a large U.S. government study called the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI).

                It found that women who were given menopausal hormone therapy — with estrogen and progestin, or estrogen alone — faced health risks. They included heightened odds of breast cancer, blood clots and stroke.

                Since then, studies have suggested the situation is more nuanced. Hormone therapy seems safer, for example, for relatively younger women at the beginning of menopause. (Women in the WHI were, on average, in their early 60s.)

                It’s remained unclear, Pavlovic said, whether women with migraines can safely go on hormone therapy.

                It’s estimated that migraines affect 1 in every 4 women, she said.

                For the new study, Pavlovic and her colleagues combed through data from the WHI.

                They found that of more than 85,000 participants with no history of heart disease or stroke, 8,800 women had suffered from migraines. During the study period, just over 1,100 women overall developed heart disease, a stroke or blood clots in the legs or lungs.

                The researchers found no evidence that women with migraines were more likely than others to suffer those complications. And migraine sufferers who were given hormone therapy faced no greater risks than those given a placebo.

                Dr. Huma Sheikh is an assistant professor of neurology at Mount Sinai’s Icahn School of Medicine in New York City.

                She said the new findings are “encouraging.”

                At one time, Sheikh said, many doctors treating women with migraines would have considered hormones to be “off the table.”

                “But now they’re becoming more open to it,” she said. That’s partly because hormones are prescribed at lower doses today versus years ago, Sheikh noted.

                The current study has limitations, Pavlovic acknowledged. For one, it looked at women’s risk of cardiovascular problems overall, and not their risk of stroke specifically.

                The researchers were also unable to look separately at women who had migraines with aura.

                Sheikh said further studies are needed to validate these findings — and to sort out whether certain women with migraines might face risks from hormone therapy.

                For now, she suggested first trying nonhormonal ways to manage menopausal symptoms.

                If women do consider hormone therapy, Sheikh added, their overall health has to be taken into account — including whether they have risk factors for heart disease and stroke, such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

                The findings were scheduled for presentation this week at the annual meeting of the North American Menopause Society, in Philadelphia. Studies presented at meetings are usually considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

                Copyright © 2017 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

                SOURCES: Jelena Pavlovic, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor, neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City; Huma Sheikh, M.D., assistant professor, neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City; Oct. 11, 2017, presentation, North American Menopause Society, annual meeting, Philadelphia

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