How using your legs keeps your brain healthy

New research shows how restricting movement in legs impairs brain health over time. A certain kind of leg exercise, by contrast, keeps neurons healthy.

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‘Pizza Challenge’ Suggests Food Is Just More Tempting to Some

News Picture: 'Pizza Challenge' Suggests Food Is Just More Tempting to Some

Latest Diet & Weight Management News

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For some people who struggle with weight gain, their body’s responses to delicious food may be working against them.

In a new study, obese people who had trouble keeping weight loss at bay salivated more and had a steeper increase in their heart rate when presented with a tempting pizza, compared to folks without such struggles.

“Our findings reveal a marked difference in physiological reactivity to food depending on weight-loss history,” said a European team of researchers led by Leonie Balter, from the University of Birmingham School of Psychology in England.

One U.S. expert said there are strategies to work around these responses, however.

“Eating can trigger the release of dopamine, a hormone associated with pleasure,” explained Dr. Allison Barrett, who directs weight-loss surgery at Long Island Jewish Forest Hills Hospital in Forest Hills, N.Y.

“In order to lose weight, patients need to learn to control that response to food and find other outlets to generate those happy hormones, such as exercise or social interaction,” Barrett said.

In the study, Balter and colleagues analyzed the saliva production and heart rate of a group of people exposed to a tempting pizza. The participants averaged just under 30 years of age and were divided into three different groups based on their weight.

Twenty of the participants used to be obese but had kept the weight off, 25 were currently obese and 20 were thin people that had never been overweight.

The researchers found that the people who were obese produced more saliva and had a greater heart rate response after being presented with a pizza. Those who had successfully lost weight, on the other hand, had a reduced response.

Meanwhile, the group of people who had never been obese had no physiological response to the pizza.

The participants were also asked to complete a computerized thinking task designed to assess their motivation to win and avoid losing both food and money. The formerly obese people who had successfully lost weight and kept it off were less affected by food “wins” and more affected by their food “losses.”

According to the researchers, that suggests that “food rewards” eventually lessen in value for successful dieters, compared to people who still struggle with weight gain.

Of course, this observational study can’t prove cause and effect. But Balter’s team believes the findings could lead to improved weight-loss maintenance strategies.

Dina Hirsch is a health psychologist at the Center for Weight Management at Syosset Hospital in Syosset, N.Y. She explained that physiology often works against people trying to lose weight.

“There are physiological factors that favor weight regain in overweight individuals who have lost weight,” Hirsch said. “For example, as people lose weight, their body reacts to defend their weight ‘set point,’ by increasing appetite and appetite-stimulating hormones.”

Add that to a modern environment where people drive instead of walk, and where cheap, high-calorie foods are seemingly everywhere, and you have a recipe for weight regain, Hirsch said.

Still, despite all that, “some people are able to persist and succeed at maintaining weight loss,” she said.

How do they succeed? According to Hirsch, “the National Weight Control Registry found that those who successfully kept weight off engaged in frequent self-monitoring of food and calorie intake, planned their meals in advance and weighed themselves regularly.”

She said the temptation to eat sugary or greasy foods is always there, but successful weight management depends on finding healthier alternatives and sticking to them.

Barrett agreed. “Part of the response to food is certainly physiologic,” she said. “But I think a significant part also comes from the patient’s ability to control their emotions surrounding food and to set themselves up for success by avoiding places where they know they will overeat or make bad food choices.”

The study’s findings were expected to be presented on Tuesday at the annual meeting of the European Congress on Obesity, in Vienna, Austria. Findings presented at medical meetings are typically considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

— Mary Elizabeth Dallas

Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


SOURCES: Allison Barrett, M.D., director, bariatric surgery, Long Island Jewish Forest Hills Hospital, Forest Hills, N.Y.; Dina Hirsch, Ph.D., health psychologist, Center for Weight Management, Syosset Hospital, Syosset, N.Y.; European Congress on Obesity, news release, May 22, 2018

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    Is Viral Pharyngitis Contagious?

    Sore throat contagious? Click for symptoms medicinenet

    is a sore medicinenet sore_throat_pharyngitis_contagious article. Is my daughter’s viral pharyngitis contagious? Webmd answers. Biologically, respiratory viruses are contagious a day before you know 16 sep 2015 yes, pharyngitis (viral and bacterial) is can be transmitted from one person to another. Symptoms and causes of viral bacterial pharyngitisis pharyngitis contagious? Symptoms, diagnosis, prevention tips. You should make sure to change toothbrushes once the 5 may 2014 there is no specific treatment for viral pharyngitis. Usually, mucus, nasal discharge and 7 oct 2010 pharyngitis is a contagious disease commonly caused by streptococcus bacteria influenza virus. Once the symptoms disappear, person is usually no longer contagious and is’cured’ of viral pharyngitis. Is a sore throat contagious? Click for symptoms rxlist. For how long are bacterial throat infections contagious? Sharecare. Pharyngitis viral symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of pharyngitis sore throat (pharyngitis) harvard health. Usually, mucus, nasal discharge and saliva can contain the viruses or bacteria that cause sore throat. Is sore throat (pharyngitis) contagious? Symptoms, treatment is pharyngitis contagious & how long does it last? Epainassist. Is a sore throat contagious? Click for symptoms medicinenet. 16 sep 2015 yes, pharyngitis (viral and bacterial) is contagious and can be transmitted from one person to another. Sometimes pharyngitis can also be caused by in most cases, is contagious, as a majority of sore throats are than half viruses (known medically viral pharyngitis) 11 jul 2017 but have you ever wondered, contagious? Pharyngitis both and bacterial infections, for the just throat cold (respiratory) virus. Both are transmitted by 30 apr 2017 Sore throat contagious? Click for symptoms medicinenet. Googleusercontent search. Is pharyngitis contagious symptoms and treatment for. Is viral pharyngitis contagious? Dribabydoc tonsillitis strept throat. Consequently, even kissing can cause transfer of these organisms 16 sep 2015 sore throat caused by viruses is usually contagious as long symptoms are present. Htm url? Q webcache. It can be caused due to bacteria or viruses even a hpv how long am i contagious, steve7x7, human papillomavirus (hpv), 1, 06 19 2008 re viral pharyngitis, jmg65, lyme disease, 2, 12 01 2004 02 44 pm is pharyngitis contagious? defined as acute type of that rapidly occurred although this usually lasts for brief period time bacterial throat infections remain contagious day two after being treated with antibiotics. Viral pharyngitis is contagious as long symptoms are present. It spreads through contact with mdguidelines print view is the most trusted source of disability guidelines, durations, and return to work information on pharyngitis acute 3 sep 2010 pharyngitis, commonly known as sore throat, inflammation pharynx. Pharyngitis acute medical disability guidelineshow long is viral pharyngitis


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      Is krill oil better than fish oil for omega-3?

      Krill oil and fish oil are popular dietary supplements containing omega-3. Krill oil comes from a small crustacean while fish oil comes from oily fish, such as salmon. Both are shown to increase blood levels of omega-3 and have benefits for health. Learn more about the differences between krill oil and fish oil here.

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      New Medicare Perk: Diabetes Prevention

      News Picture: New Medicare Perk: Diabetes PreventionBy Serena Gordon
      HealthDay Reporter

      TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Millions of U.S. seniors can now take part in a Medicare program designed to prevent prediabetes from progressing to type 2 diabetes.

      Almost half of Americans 65 and older have prediabetes, and many don’t know it. In addition to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes puts people at risk of heart disease and stroke, according to the American Association of Diabetes Educators.

      “Medicare has expanded its coverage to include diabetes prevention, and that’s really great news,” said Angela Forfia, senior manager of prevention for the American Association of Diabetes Educators.

      Prediabetes means blood sugar levels are elevated, but not as high as in type 2 diabetes. Weight loss and increased physical activity can help ward off a type 2 diagnosis.

      “Seniors are a very high-risk group for type 2 diabetes,” Forfia said. But they’re also much more likely than younger people to be successful at preventing diabetes, she added.

      Taking action is key. “If you wait even a year, prediabetes can become diabetes,” Forfia said.

      The Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program is based on a year-long national diabetes prevention program started by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      Private insurers often cover the CDC’s diabetes prevention program because it’s been shown to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 58 percent overall. In people over 60, the program reduces risk of type 2 diabetes by 71 percent, according to the diabetes educators’ group.

      The new program includes at least 16 intensive “core” sessions of a CDC-approved curriculum. Those 16 sessions occur over six months in a classroom-style setting. Participants receive education on long-term dietary changes, increased physical activity, and behavior-change strategies for weight control, according to the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

      After the core sessions are done, less intensive follow-up meetings are held monthly to help reinforce the new healthy behaviors.

      The main program goal is to lose at least 5 percent of body weight. The program also aims to get people exercising at least 150 minutes a week, Forfia added.

      But program coordinators work with program participants to “set realistic, achievable goals,” Forfia said.

      Overall, the program includes 24 hours of instruction. “It’s really just a full day of commitment, and the program can have a tremendous impact on your life,” she noted.

      This is welcome news, said Dr. Joel Zonszein, director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City.

      “Treating prediabetes is better than treating diabetes. The CDC’s diabetes prevention program has been very successful, but we don’t always have enough referrals to the program,” Zonszein said.

      “Primary care physicians need to know this is a tremendous opportunity to help their patients with prediabetes,” he added.

      So, who’s eligible for the new program? First, you must be enrolled in Medicare Part B. Other requirements include:

      • A body mass index (BMI) of at least 25, or at least 23 if Asian. (BMI is a rough measure of body fat using height and weight measurements. A BMI of 25 or higher is considered overweight.)
      • An abnormal blood sugar level within 12 months of the first core session. Blood sugar can be measured in one of three ways: An A1C test that doesn’t have to be done fasting (5.7 to 6.4 percent is prediabetes); a fasting blood test (110 to 125 milligrams per deciliter is prediabetes); or a 2-hour fasting glucose tolerance test (140 to 199 mg/dL is prediabetes).
      • No previous diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
      • No end-stage kidney disease.

      Although the reimbursement for services became available in April, Forfia said it will likely take programs time to get started. In the meantime, she said the CDC’s diabetes prevention program may offer classes in your area. Talk with your doctor to see if you need diabetes prevention services. Your physician may also be able to help you enroll.

      Copyright © 2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


      SOURCES: Angela Forfia, M.A., senior manager, prevention, American Association of Diabetes Educators, Chicago; Joel Zonszein, M.D., director, Clinical Diabetes Center, New York City

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        How to Stretch With a Foam Roller

        Here’s how to use a foam roller to release tension and loosen tight muscles.


        Medical Videos – How to Stretch With a Foam Roller #Medical #Videos

          Depression Tests, Treatment, Symptoms & Causes


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            Are apples good for diabetes?

            A person with diabetes must monitor the carbohydrate and sugar in their diet. Although apples contain these compounds, they are a healthful choice for people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this article, find out the effects of apples on blood sugar and insulin levels, plus other fruits to eat for diabetes.

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            Chronic Cough Causes, Treatment, Remedies, Symptoms

            Alt TextChronic coughing can be a sign of a cold or a more serious disease making it a symptom you shouldn't ignore.

            Chronic cough definition and facts

            Cold and Flu: Finding Relief for Your Cough

            OTC Cough Medications

            Making Sense of OTC Cold Medications

            Unsure about the hundreds of cold and
            flu preparations on the drugstore
            shelves? You’re not alone. Deciding among the OTC (over-the-counter) remedies for cold,
            flu, or allergy symptoms can be intimidating, and a basic
            understanding of the types of drugs included in these medications can help you
            make an informed choice.

            Coughing is a symptom of asthma, a disease that should be monitored by a doctor.

            What causes chronic cough in children and adults?

            Some common causes and risk factors for chronic cough include asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus problems (for example sinus infection), esophageal reflux of stomach contents, medications such as ACE inhibitors, and whooping cough. In rare cases, chronic cough may be the result of inhaling foreign objects into the lungs (usually in children). It is important to see a doctor who may order a chest X-ray if a chronic cough is present. Common causes of chronic cough include:

            • Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of a constant, chronic cough.
            • Asthma is a disease of the airways, resulting in difficulty breathing or wheezing often characterized by abnormal breathing tests. Some asthma sufferers have chronic cough as their only symptom. They may even have normal lung functions tests. This is often referred to as cough-variant asthma. Asthma symptoms can be aggravated by cold air, exposure to air pollutants, pollen, smoke, or perfumes.
            • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refers to acid reflux, or backward flow, of stomach acid and other contents into the esophagus. If stomach acid moves backward up the esophagus, reflexes result in spasm of the airways that can cause shortness of breath and coughing. In some instances, acid reflux can be so severe that substances can be inhaled (aspirated) into the lungs and cause similar symptoms as well as damage to lung tissue. In some individuals, no sensation of heartburn is felt and their only symptom may be chronic cough.
            • Sinus problems and postnasal drip also are causes of chronic cough with mucus. This condition can be difficult to detect. Sometimes CT scan of the sinuses is necessary for diagnosis. Affected individuals often complain of a “tickle in their throat” and frequent throat clearing.
            • Infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia can cause acute cough or a chronic cough. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungus. Viral infections do not respond to antibiotics. The common cold and the flu often produce a dry cough. Viral upper respiratory tract infections often result in a prolonged cough even after the infection has cleared in people with asthma. Acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis are common causes of coughing up blood (hemoptysis).
            • A particular strain of bacterial pneumonia, called Mycoplasma, may cause a chronic cough with fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and sputum production. This infection is sometimes referred to as “walking pneumonia,” and commonly affects young and healthy people.
            • Whooping cough (pertussis) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It can cause violent, rapid, constant coughing (often a high-piched cough with a “whoop” sound at the end) and it can be life-threatening in young children. Whooping cough commonly affects infants and young children, but can be prevented by immunization with pertussis vaccine. In adults, whooping cough can be a cause of chronic cough.
            • Chronic cough in children is uncommon. Foreign material obstructing the airways of the lungs, asthma, and allergies need to be evaluated by a pediatrician.
            • Certain medications, like ACE inhibitors (enalapril [Vasotec], captopril [Capoten] etc.) used in treating high blood pressure can cause chronic cough.
            • Less common causes of chronic cough include allergies, tumors, sarcoidosis, congestive heart failure, or other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive disease (COPD) or emphysema. Lung diseases also can cause coughing up blood.

            If chronic cough persists, it is important to be evaluated by a doctor. The health-care professional will consider the possibility of asthma, postnasal drip, esophageal reflux, drug side effects, interstitial lung disease, lung cancer, or other unusual infections.

            Whooping cough can last for 10 weeks, and a vaccination can prevent whooping cough.

            What are the different types of chronic coughs (dry, wet)?

            There are several different types of chronic (or persistent) cough. Examples include:

            1. Dry cough: is a persistent dry cough is a cough that does not produce any mucus, is irritating to the lungs and throat, and may be a sign of a viral infection or sinus problems
            2. Chronic wet cough: is a cough that produces mucus (sputum), and depending on the color, may indicate a bacterial infection or fluid in the lungs (congestive heart failure)
            3. Stress cough: a reflexive spasm of the airways caused when you are under stress. It usually produces no mucus and is not generally related to infections.
            4. ‘Barking’ cough’: is usually found in children, and may be associated with croup or other viral illness. The harsh, barking sound of a croup cough is caused by a swollen windpipe (trachea).
            5. Whooping cough: is a cough that causes a ‘whooping’ sound after the cough may be indicative of a serious infection and should be evaluated by a doctor. Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory disease that can be deadly for babies under 1 year of age.

            Cough syrup may help soothe and calm both chronic and acute coughs.

            What is the treatment for chronic cough caused by health problems?

            The treatment of chronic cough is directed at the cause. Symptoms may be relieved with over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines containing guaifenesin and/or dextromethorphan (these can be found as cough syrups in tablet form).

            The following are treatments for chronic cough caused by medications, conditions, or diseases.

            • Asthma: Inhaled bronchodilators and inhaled steroids are given to decrease inflammation of the airways, and reduce wheezing. In some cases, short-term oral steroids are prescribed to relieve chronic cough.
            • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Treatment for chronic cough of GERD includes avoiding foods that increase reflux, avoiding meals before lying down, elevating the head while sleeping, and taking medication such as famotidine (Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac) omeprazole (Prilosec, Prilosec OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Prevacid 24-Hour), rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix), esomeprazole (Nexium) to decrease stomach acidity.
            • Sinus problems and postnasal drip: Use of decongestants such as pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) or antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) may improve symptoms of postnasal drip or runny nose, which can lead to a persistent, nagging, cough. Inhaled nasal steroids are very effective in treating allergic rhinitis (hay fever), a common cause of cough. Additionally, other nasal inhalers like ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) can relieve postnasal drip. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause is determined to be sinusitis.

            In severe cases of chronic cough a health-care professional may prescribe codeine or other similar narcotic medications, which are effective as cough suppressants.

            A doctor should examine any patient with persistent coughing.

            What is the treatment for chronic caused by infections or drugs?

            Infections: Bacterial pneumonia and bronchitis are typically treated with antibiotics such as cephalosporins, azithromycin (Zithromax), and other antibiotics. If the pneumonia is close to the chest wall inflammation of the surface of the lung can cause pain, known as pleurisy and pain relievers (analgesics) can be helpful. Cough suppressants are used with caution in these situations because clearing the lung of the infected mucus by coughing helps clear the infection. Most bronchitis in adults is caused by viral infections. Therefore, treatment is much the same as that of the common cold including rest, fluids, pain relievers, and humidification. Some people find expectorant cough medicines containing guaifenesin helpful in alleviating their discomfort. Sometimes it is hard to differentiate a viral bronchitis from a bacterial bronchitis, and antibiotics are prescribed. In some cases, asthmatics can produce green mucus that looks infected. Your doctor can have the mucus examined to determine if an infection is present.

            Medications: Patients with chronic cough who are taking blood pressure medicines called ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme), for example, enalapril (Vasotec), captopril (Capoten), lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil), etc. should talk to their doctor about switching medications. Patients should not stop taking medicine on their own because a marked elevation in blood pressure can result from discontinuation. Discuss any possible medicaion changes with your doctor. A newer generation of ACE inhibitor like medicines called ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers, for example, valsartan [Diovan], losartan [Cozaar], etc.) can be alternatives that have less potential to cause chronic coughing. Many other drugs are available to manage blood pressure.

            Ginger tea with lemon is one of many home remedies to relieve and soothe chronic cough symptoms.

            10 home remedies for chronic cough in children and adults

            Chronic cough in adults can sometimes be treated with home remedies. Consult your doctor for the home remedies that might be best for you, and talk to your doctor before taking any herbal supplements or natural remedies for chronic cough as some may interact with medications you take.

            1. Stay hydrated. Fluids can help thin secretions.
            2. Gargle with warm saltwater to help cleanse the throat and rid it of mucus.
            3. Elevate your head with extra pillows at night to ease a chronic dry cough.
            4. Inhale steam in a shower, or use a cool-mist humidifier to relieve dry cough.
            5. Cough drops may soothe an irritated throat.
            6. Do not smoke or use tobacco products.
            7. Avoid inhaled irritants such as smoke, dust, or other pollutants.
            8. Honey often can be an effective treatment for a persistent cough. Add honey to hot tea, or even grape juice.
            9. Ginger, prepared as a tea, is often used to help reduce symptoms of chronic cough and clear the nasal passages.
            10. Other herbs such as eucalyptus or mint are often used to relieve cough symptoms.

            5 chronic cough in children and adults prevention tips

            1. Don’t smoke, as smoking is the most common cause of chronic cough.
            2. Talk to your doctors about managing your asthma, postnasal drip, or GERD to avoid chronic cough symptoms.
            3. Stay away from others known to be sick with bronchitis or pneumonia.
            4. Eat fruit. Research suggests that diets high in fruit fiber and flavonoids may prevent chronic productive cough.
            5. Make sure you and your child get the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine.

            Which types of doctors treat chronic coughs?

            A primary care provider (PCP) such as a family practitioner or internist may initially diagnose and treat a persistent cough. If cough is severe, a person may be seen in a hospital’s emergency department by an emergency medicine specialist.

            People suffering from constant cough may be referred to different specialists depending on the underlying cause. A pulmonologist is a lung specialist who treats diseases of the airways. An allergist is an allergy specialist who may treat chronic cough due to allergies. Gastroenterologists specialize in diseases of the digestive tract and can treat chronic cough due to conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). Cardiologists specialize in diseases of the heart and circulatory system and may treat persistent cough that can be a secondary symptom of heart disease.

            Medically Reviewed on 5/16/2018



            NIH. Cough.

            Silvestri, RC, MD. et al. Patient education: Chronic cough in adults (Beyond the Basics). Updated: Apr 2018.

            The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Proton Pump Inhibitors: Use in Adults. August 2013. 16 June 2015 <>

            Waknine, Y. Diet High in Fruit Fiber and Flavonoids May Prevent Chronic Productive Cough. Medscape Medical News. Aug 03, 2004.

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